Andrew J. Elliot Quotes

Hope you enjoy the following quotes written by Andrew J. Elliot :

"The model of developing expertise has five key elements (although they certainly do not constitute an exhaustive list of elements in the ultimate development of expertise from abilities): metacognitive skills, learning skills, thinking skills, knowledge, and motivation."

"Metacognitive skills (or metacomponents; Sternberg, 1985) refer to people’s understanding and control of their own cognition. For example, such skills would encompass what an individual knows about writing papers or solving arithmetic word problems, both with regard to the steps that are involved and to how these steps can be executed effectively."

"Learning skills (knowledge-acquisition components) are essential to the model (Sternberg, 1985, 1986), although they are certainly not the only learning skills that individuals use."

"There are three main kinds of thinking skills (or performance components) that individuals need to master (Sternberg, 1985, 1986, 1994). It is important to note that these are sets of, rather than individual, thinking skills. Critical (analytical) thinking skills include analyzing, critiquing, judging, evaluating, comparing and contrasting, and assessing.  Creative thinking skills include creating, discovering, inventing, imagining, supposing, and hypothesizing. Practical thinking
skills include applying, using, utilizing, and practicing (Sternberg, 1997). They are the first step in the translation of thought into real-world action."

"Two main kinds of knowledge are relevant in academic situations. Declarative knowledge is of facts, concepts, principles, laws, and the like. It is “knowing that.” Procedural knowledge is of procedures and strategies.  It is “knowing how.”"

"One can distinguish among several different kinds of motivation. A first kind of motivation is achievement motivation (McClelland, 1985; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1976). People who are high in achievement motivation seek moderate challenges and risks."

"We would argue that individuals who have been punished (e.g., through criticism or parental disapproval) for not taking on or failing to master a challenging task will learn to master the challenge in order to avoid similar punishments in the future. In the process, the successful mastery of the task acquires the properties of a rewarding safety signal, which should maintain the person’s motivation to achieve as long as it remains associated with the absence of punishment."

"If a person is competent in school-related activities, others want him or her as their work partner; they will seek the
person out for help, and so on. Similarly, the individual regarded as competent in sports is among the first selected when teams are formed."

"Envy is related to feelings of inferiority, which are brought about by unfavorable social comparisons and can contribute to negative self-evaluations. For example, students assess their ability by comparing their performance with peers, and they may conclude that others have higher ability than they do. This has negative affective consequences."

"Unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of obstacles. For this reason, how people behave can often be better predicted by the beliefs they hold about their capabilities than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing, for these self-efficacy perceptions
help determine what individuals do with the knowledge and skills they have."

"People form self-efficacy perceptions through the vicarious experience of observing others perform tasks. This source of information has weaker effects on self-efficacy than do mastery experiences, but when people are uncertain about their own abilities, or when they have limited prior experience, they become more sensitive to what others do."

"People’s self-theories not only affect their definitions of competence when they observe others but also influence their definition of competence for themselves."

Written by Author : Andrew J. Elliot
Handbook of Competence and Motivation

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