Hope you enjoy the following quotes written by Andrew J. Elliot :
"The model of developing expertise has five key elements (although they
certainly do not constitute an exhaustive list of elements in the ultimate
development of expertise from abilities): metacognitive skills, learning
skills, thinking skills, knowledge, and motivation."
"Metacognitive skills (or metacomponents; Sternberg, 1985) refer to
people’s understanding and control of their own cognition. For example,
such skills would encompass what an individual knows about writing papers
or solving arithmetic word problems, both with regard to the steps that
are involved and to how these steps can be executed effectively."
"Learning skills (knowledge-acquisition components) are essential to
the model (Sternberg, 1985, 1986), although they are certainly not the
only learning skills that individuals use."
"There are three main kinds of thinking skills (or performance components)
that individuals need to master (Sternberg, 1985, 1986, 1994). It is important
to note that these are sets of, rather than individual, thinking skills.
Critical (analytical) thinking skills include analyzing, critiquing, judging,
evaluating, comparing and contrasting, and assessing. Creative thinking
skills include creating, discovering, inventing, imagining, supposing,
and hypothesizing. Practical thinking
"Two main kinds of knowledge are relevant in academic situations. Declarative
knowledge is of facts, concepts, principles, laws, and the like. It is
“knowing that.” Procedural knowledge is of procedures and strategies.
It is “knowing how.”"
"One can distinguish among several different kinds of motivation. A
first kind of motivation is achievement motivation (McClelland, 1985; McClelland,
Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1976). People who are high in achievement
motivation seek moderate challenges and risks."
"We would argue that individuals who have been punished (e.g., through
criticism or parental disapproval) for not taking on or failing to master
a challenging task will learn to master the challenge in order to avoid
similar punishments in the future. In the process, the successful mastery
of the task acquires the properties of a rewarding safety signal, which
should maintain the person’s motivation to achieve as long as it remains
associated with the absence of punishment."
"If a person is competent in school-related activities, others want
him or her as their work partner; they will seek the
"Envy is related to feelings of inferiority, which are brought about
by unfavorable social comparisons and can contribute to negative self-evaluations.
For example, students assess their ability by comparing their performance
with peers, and they may conclude that others have higher ability than
they do. This has negative affective consequences."
"Unless people believe that their actions can produce the outcomes they
desire, they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of
obstacles. For this reason, how people behave can often be better predicted
by the beliefs they hold about their capabilities than by what they are
actually capable of accomplishing, for these self-efficacy perceptions
"People form self-efficacy perceptions through the vicarious experience
of observing others perform tasks. This source of information has weaker
effects on self-efficacy than do mastery experiences, but when people are
uncertain about their own abilities, or when they have limited prior experience,
they become more sensitive to what others do."
"People’s self-theories not only affect their definitions of competence when they observe others but also influence their definition of competence for themselves."
Written by Author : Andrew J. Elliot
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